Amnesia and Consciousness. (1998) along with additional studies, we conclude that PET studies of encoding reveal both anterior and posterior MTL activations. Memory and consciousness have been objects of fascination to psychologists and other brain scientists for over one hundred years. Early neuroimaging studies often failed to obtain evidence of medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation during episodic encoding or retrieval, but a growing number of studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have provided such evidence. Endel Tulving OC FRSC (born May 26, 1927) is an Estonian-born Canadian experimental psychologist and cognitive neuroscientist, known for his pioneering research on human memory. In group TH/TF, the VPC impairment emerged earlier (30 sec); yet, once the nonmatching rule was mastered, no significant change occurred on any DNMS condition. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrated greater activation of prefron-tal cortical areas during word retrieval. perceptual versus conceptual). Psychol Bull. E Tulving, DL Schacter. recollection versus novelty detection) and domain of targeted memories (e.g. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. If recollection is a continuous process (i.e., if recollection comes in degrees), then evidence that has been taken to mean that the hippocampus selectively supports recollection is also compatible with the idea that the hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity. Nevertheless, individuals can learn information with divided attention. Overall, recollected items were associated with higher activity in the subiculum than other items. Based on their analysis of the rostrocaudal distribution of activations reported during episodic encoding or retrieval, Lepage et al. ABSTRACT As event-related brain potential (ERP) researchers have increased the number of recording sites, they have gained further insights into the electrical activity in the neural networks underlying explicit memory. Our primary tool Res. A categorical process is one that either occurs or does not occur for a particular test item (yielding high confidence and high accuracy when it does occur), whereas a continuous process is one that comes in degrees (yielding varying degrees of confidence and accuracy). sight ” in problem solving has been the subject of considerable investiga-tion. Both item repetition and the use of a semantic encoding task were associated with memory retrieval–related hippocampal recruitment in control but not schizophrenic participants. Yet, as we explain in subsequent sections, if recollection is a continuous process, then this evidence cannot be used in supp... ...t of the recollection of episodic memories is the concurrent retrieval of incidental ‘‘contextual’’ information that is not taskrelevant. A behavioral study indicated that detailed (“recollective”) information was more likely to be present for words encoded with the easy versus the hard concurrent task. 138-155. The latter included bilateral hippocam-pus, retrosplenial, and ventromedial prefrontal cortices. Four groups were tested: normal controls, monkeys with ibotenic acid lesions of the hippocampal formation (H), and monkeys with aspiration lesions of either the perirhinal (PRh) or parahippocampal (areas TH/TF) cortex. Studies suggesting that the hippocampus selectively supports the recollection process (such as those that use the Remember/Know procedure or rely on Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis) generally depend on the categorical view of recollection, but much recent evidence suggests that recollection is a continuous process. The behavioral methods that are used to isolate recollection and familiarity in neuroimaging and lesion studies typically assume that recollection is a categorical process and not a continuous process. There has been little apart from the idea that primary memory can be identified with consciousness (e.g., Craik & Jacoby, 1975; James, 1890), the idea that the kind of consciousness that characterizes their operations. Biol Psychi-, "... ABSTRACT: Memories for certain events tend to linger in rich, vivid detail, and retrieval of these memories includes a sense of re-experienc-ing the details of the event. It is based on the Multi-Store Model idea of LTM, but it suggests there is a difference between episodic memory (eg remembering a family holiday in Disneyland) and more general memory (eg … We examined the neural bases of these two processes by per-forming fMRI scanning during a recognition memory test for faces that were unfamiliar, famous, or p ...", ABSTRACT: Incidental retrieval of autobiographical knowledge can provide rich contextual support for episodic recollection of a recent event. This theory was proposed by Endel Tulving, one of the leading figures in memory research. Tulving is a professor emeritus at the University of Toronto. The results of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis demon-strated that the right hippocampus was critically highlighted and that a wide cerebral cortex was also involved in this “insight ” event. ...btained from fitting the Dual Process Signal Detection (DPSD) model (Yonelinas, 1994) to confidence-based Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) data and from the use of the Remember/Know procedure (=-=Tulving, 1985-=-) to interpret neuroimaging data in terms of recollection and familiarity. The case of a young adult male amnesic patient is described. Recognition memory was assessed by submitting the same adult monkeys to visual paired comparison (VPC) with mixed delays (10 –120 sec), followed by three consecutive versions of object-delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS): increasing delays (10 – 600 sec), lengthened lists (3–10 objects), and interv ...", Recognition memory was assessed by submitting the same adult monkeys to visual paired comparison (VPC) with mixed delays (10 –120 sec), followed by three consecutive versions of object-delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS): increasing delays (10 – 600 sec), lengthened lists (3–10 objects), and intervening distractors in the delays (light at 10 sec, motor task at 30 – 600 sec, or context change at 600 sec). The psychological literature relevant to the problem of the relation between memory and consciousness differs from the larger literature on consciousness by the dearth of both ideas and facts. Healthy adults can increase recall accuracy following encoding interventions, such as item repetition and the formation of semantic associations. Psychological Review. The behavioral methods that are used to isolate recollection and familiarity in neuroimagin ...", ABSTRACT: Many recent studies have investigated how the structures of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) support recollection and familiarity, which are two processes widely thought to support recognition memory. Memory and consciousness. If attention is divided during learning, memory suffers. ↑ Tulving, Endel (1974). ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Memory and consciousness: A selective review of issues and data. According to Tulving (1983, 1985), remembering is an expression of autonoetic consciousness and hence retrieval from episodic memory, and knowing is an expression of noetic consciousness and hence retrieval from semantic memory. We then turn to a recent meta-analysis of PET studies (Lepage et al., Hippocampus 1998;8:313-- 322) that appears to contradict the fMRI encoding data. Methods: Twelve patients with schizophrenia and twelve healthy control subjects participated. The neural processes recruited for successful retrieval also depended on the encoding condition: The left PFC was disproportionately recruited for retrieval of items encoded with the easy task, whereas the right PFC was disproportionately recruited for retrieval of items encoded with the hard task. In contrast, left anterior ventrolateral PFC coactivated with a left middle temporal region associated with semantic representation, and right ventrolateral PFC with bilateral occipito-temporal cortices associated with representing object form, depending on whether recollections were conceptual or perceptual. Episodic Memory and Autonoetic Consciousness. Healthy adults can increase recall accuracy following encoding interventions, such as item repetition and the formation of semantic associations. Specifically, we propose that, for VPC, because of passive (incidental) encoding, the animal’s performance rests on both item familiarity and event recollection, whereas, for DNMS, because of active (purposeful) encoding, performance relies more on item familiarity. tul The cognitive neuroscience of memory and consciousness. doi:10.1037/h0020071. Tulving’s (1972) theory of memory draws a distinction between general knowledge (semantic memory) and memory for events (episodic memory). Processes closely related to these aspects have been implicated in the hippocampus. Conscious events interact with memory systems in learning, rehearsal and retrieval (Ebbinghaus 1885/1964; Tulving 1985). To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first neuroimaging study to have investigated the neural correlates of “insight ” in problem solving. These results led us to postulate that VPC and DNMS, as previously administered to monkeys, were not equivalent visual recognition memory probes. This theory predicts that as episodic memories fade over time and are reduced to feelings of familiarity, activity in the hippocampus should no longer be associated with retrieval. Theoreti-cally, “insight ” means the reorientation of one’s thinking, including breaking of the unwarranted “fixation ” and forming of novel, task-related associat ...". ISBN 978-1841690155. According to one theory, the hippocampus pla ...", ABSTRACT: Memories for certain events tend to linger in rich, vivid detail, and retrieval of these memories includes a sense of re-experienc-ing the details of the event. Although we did not record the “remember/ know” judgments used to distinguish conscious from familiarity-based recollection (=-=Tulving 1985-=-), and therefore cannot examine this hypothesis using the current data, further evaluation of this intriguing explanation seems warranted. Ian G. Dobbins, Anthony D. Wagner, by Canadian Psychology/PsychologieCanadienne, 26, 1–12), exploration of the ability to anticipate and prepare for future contingencies that cannot be known with certainty has grown into a thriving research enter- These collected essays from leading figures in cognitive psychology represent the latest research and thinking in the field. Our results indicate a dissociation between the involvement of retrosplenial vs. mid/posterior cingulate and precuneus in memory tasks. 600 sec delays with distraction the leading figures in memory tasks with episodic encoding, whereas posterior MTL is associated! 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